OFFICE OF RADIO RESEARCH/BUREAU OF APPLIED SOCIAL RESEARCH
THELMA ERLICH ANDERSON
Unless otherwise noted, all biographies were written by Peter Simonson and Lauren Archer.
See Women of the Film
RENA ROSS BARTOS
(1918 - ) became what the New York Times
called “one of the stars of advertising research” after starting a career at Paul Lazarsfeld’s Office of Radio Research in the early 1940s. Mentored by, and often at several points working alongside, Herta Herzog throughout her career, Bartos helped bring social scientific methods into advertising work.
Bartos was born and raised in Newark, New Jersey. She graduated from the Newark campus of Rutgers University in 1939 and continued on to Columbia University to pursue graduate work. Although her initial interest was in psychology, she quickly switched her focus to sociology and began working with Paul Lazarsfeld, and she co-authored an article on interviewer bias that appeared in the ORR’s Radio Research 1942-1943
(Udow and Ross, 1943). Bartos switched her focus again when she grew impatient with graduate school and left to take a job in advertising, where she would make her career.
Bartos worked at the Warwick and Legler advertising agency from 1942 until 1946, serving as an assistant to the research director of the agency and doing research related to radio and print media. In 1947, she conducted a readership study for a publication called 47: Magazine of the Year
. To implement the study, she hired Columbia graduate students to conduct interviews. That same year, she joined the research department of McCann Erickson, working as an assistant to Herta Herzog, who had been searching for a social scientifically-trained assistant with experience in advertising. At McCann, Bartos learned to run the Lazarsfeld-Stanton Program Analyzer
, conduct focus groups
, and participate in the multi-method applied research that Herzog pioneered (which included motivation research followed by psychological tests administered on the subjects interviewed). Bartos got married, and then left McCann Erickson. She spent the next decade out of professional life, but occasionally did freelance projects for McCann at Herzog’s invitation.
During the 1950s, McCann-Erickson was transformed into Interpublic. The former research department was spun off into a research company called Marplan, with Herzog as its chairman. In 1962, Herzog invited Bartos to return to work as director of advertising research at Marplan, where she stayed for four years.
In 1966, Bartos was recruited by the J. Walter Thompson advertising agency to develop a creative research function. There, Bartos developed a program of communications research inspired by Herzog. This multiphase program moved from hypothesis generation to ad testing to large-scale studies to assess the real-world effectiveness of advertising campaigns. Bartos was named senior vice-president at J. Walter Thompson in 1977. About that time, the Advertising Research Foundation also asked her to conduct research on “the founding fathers of ad research” in preparation of a film project they were sponsoring (the founding mother Herta Herzog wasn’t included on the Foundation’s list of figures to remember at that time).
In the 1970s, a creative director at Thompson asked Bartos to develop a viewpoint on how to address the African-American consumer market. In order to answer his request, she turned to secondary research of census data and reanalysis of some standard, large-scale attitudinal and media studies to which the agency subscribed. She worked in collaboration with a task force of African-American staff members. This program of applied sociology went beyond communications research to redefine the targets for that communication. She realized that this approach could be applied to other ethnic, lifestyle, and identity groups as well. Following this pattern, she developed a study of the Spanish-speaking market, which in turn evolved into a specialized advertising agency.
The most visible application of this approach was to the women’s market. Starting with a simple comparison of working women and housewives, it evolved into a segmentation of women by occupation and attitudes, which Bartos called “The New Demographics.” The first public application of this approach came in a speech she gave to the Travel Research Association on the women’s travel market. This appearance led to media interest and requests for speeches and articles on the changing women’s market, which she designated “the moving target.” In the 1970s and ‘80s Bartos came to be recognized as one of the world’s authorities on marketing to women and published several books, including The Moving Target: What Every Marketer Should Know about Women
(1982) and Marketing to Women around the World
(1989). In 1985, she became the first woman chair of the Advertising Research Foundation. Two years later, she left J. Walter Thompson to form a consulting firm, the Rena Bartos Company. She was inducted into the Market Research Hall of Fame in 1989.
Bartos, Rena and Theodore F. Dunn. 1976. Advertising and Consumers: New Perspectives
. New York: American Association of Advertising Agencies.
Bartos, Rena. 1977. The Moving Target: The Impact of Women's Employment on Consumer Behavior. The Journal of Marketing
Bartos, Rena. 1977. The Founding Fathers of Advertising Research: A Tribute by the Advertising Research Foundation. Journal of Advertising Research
. 17(June): 3-8.
Bartos, Rena Ross. 1977. Interview with Frank Stanton. Journal of Advertising Research
17:43-46. Reprinted in Everette Dennis and Ellen Wartella, eds., American Communication Research: The Remembered History
(Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 1996).
Bartos, Rena. 1978. What Every Marketer Should Know About Women. Harvard Business Review
Bartos, Rena. 1982. The Moving Target. What Every Marketer Should Know About Women
. New York: Free Press. Bartos, Rena. 1986. Qualitative Research: What It Is and Where It Came From
. New York: Advertising Research Foundation.
Bartos, Rena. 1989. Marketing to Women Around the World.
Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Rena Bartos Papers
(1960-1988), Duke University Libraries
NBC Interview with Rena Bartos on The Moving Target
radio research, working with Paul Lazarsfeld, Rudolf Arnheim and Edward Suchman, did a study of refrigerator purchasers
Bayne, Martha. 1937. County at Large. The Women's City and Country Club with Vassar College
Arnheim, Rudolf, and Martha Collins Bayne. 1941. Foreign language broadcasts over local American stations. In Radio Research 1941
, eds. P.F. Lazarsfeld and F.N. Stanton, 110-139. New York: Duell, Sloan & Pearce.
1947 magazine study of textile mill executives reading preferences, worked with Babette Kass
Worked with Robert K. Merton on Kate Smith study and helped develop the focused interview as a research method along with Merton and Marjorie Fiske.
Curtis, Alberta. 1939. The reliability of a report in listening habits. Journal of Applied Psychology
Curtis, Alberta. 1940. Listeners appraise a college station, station WOI, Iowa State College
. Washington D.C.: Federal Radio Education Committee.
Curtis, Alberta. 1940. Radio and reading. The Saturday Review of Literature
Sturmthal, Adolf and Alberta Curtis. 1944. Program Analyzer tests of two educational films. In Radio Research 1942-43
Merton, Robert K., Marjorie Fiske, and Alberta Curtis. 1946. Mass Persuasion: The Social Psychology of a War Bond Drive
. New York: Harper & Bros. 2nd ed. 1958. Reprinted Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1971.
HELEN SCHNEIDER DINERMAN
(1920-1974) was an extremely talented communications and public opinion researcher who died an untimely death as she was nearing the peak of her career. Born in New York City, she earned a bachelors degree from Hunter College and a Masters in sociology from Columbia by the time she was 20. In 1940, Paul Lazarsfeld put her in charge of statistical analysis for the groundbreaking election study in Erie County, Ohio that would become The People’s Choice
. She played a similar role for the 1945-46 Decatur Study, which became the classic Personal Influence
. She also collaborated and co-authored studies with Paul Lazarsfeld and C. Wright Mills. During World War II, she worked as a researcher in the Office of War Information and the Office of Facts and Figures. After leaving the Bureau, Dinerman worked for a year as a research analyst at the Scientific Department of the American Jewish Committee with the Institute of Social Research, where she conducted an audience reception study of an anti-prejudice film that grew into a fascinating article on unintended “boomerang effects” (Cooper and Dinerman, 1951). In 1948 she joined Elmo Wilson’s new International Research Associates (INRA), where she would remain until her death. Originally formed to provide research about Latin America to the business community, INRA quickly grew into a world network of survey research organizations conducting polls in 48 countries in the non-communist world. Dinerman conducted a wide range of international research, and became chair of INRA’s executive committee with Wilson’s death in 1968. In 1969, she was named president-elect of the World Association for Public Opinion Research (WAPOR) but fell ill before she could assume office. In 1981, WAPOR established an award in her name.
Dinerman, Helen. 1948. Votes in the making. Public Opinion Quarterly
Lazarsfeld, Paul and Helen Dinerman. 1949. Research for Action. In Communications Research 1948-1949
, eds. Paul Lazarsfeld and Frank Stanton, 73-108. Duell, Sloan, & Pearce: New York.
Mills, C Wright, and Helen Dinerman. 1951. Leaders of the union. Chapter 2 in The House of Labor
, eds. JBS Hardman and M Neufeld, 24-47. New York: Prentise-Hall.
Cooper, Eunice and Helen Dinerman. 1951. Analysis of the film “Don't be a Sucker”: A study in communication. Public Opinion Quarterly
15(2): 243-264. Reprinted in Will Brooker and Deborah Jermyn, eds., The Audience Studies Reader
(London: Routledge, 2003).
Dinerman, Helen. 1963. Image problems for American companies abroad. In The Corporation and its Publics
, New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Dinerman, Helen. 1968. Elmo C. Wilson, 1906-1968. Public Opinion Quarterly
Dinerman, Helen. 1969. A call for international public opinion research. The Analyst
. Reprinted 2001 in International Journal of Public Opinion Research
“Why WAPOR Has a Helen Dinerman Award,” International Journal for Public Opinion Research
13:1 (2001), 1-3.
1943. The structure and stability of public opinion: Some aspects of national morale.
Durant, R. 1939. Watling: A survey of social life on a new housing estate
. London: PS King.
Durant, Henry and Ruth Durant. 1940. Lord Haw-Haw of Hamburg: His British audience. Public Opinion Quarterly
Lazarsfeld, Paul, and Ruth Durant. 1942. National moral, social cleavage and political allegiance. Journalism Quarterly
played a large role in Columbia communications research from the late 1930s until she moved to California in 1955 and turned her interests elsewhere. Born in Massachusetts in 1914, she earned a bachelor's degree from Mt Holyoke College in 1935, and a masters degree from Columbia in 1938. That year she published the first of her many papers, co-authoring an article with Lazarsfeld that introduced panel studies as a new methodology. Over the next decade, she would be one of the core research associates at the Office of Radio Research and Bureau. In that time, she conducted a number of radio studies, interviewed listeners, administered and wrote about the Program Analyzer, and played a major role in conducting the Kate Smith study, which would become Mass Persuasion
. She helped write a long training manual on focused interviews, which would later become the standard book on the subject. At the Bureau, Fiske also published other nuanced articles on audiences for motion pictures and children’s comics, before leaving in 1949 to become Deputy Director of Evaluation Staff for the State Department's International Broadcasting Service—the Voice of America (VOA). She stayed there until 1953, working with her future husband, the Frankfurt School émigré Leo Lowenthal, who was VOA research director from 1949 to 1955. In 1953 she took a position as executive director of the Ford Foundation's national planning committee on research in television, and returned to the Bureau to head up their Planning Committee on Media Research. She moved to California in 1955, and taught classes in the Department of Sociology and the School of Librarianship at Berkeley—in the latter capacity authoring an award-winning report on censorship in public and high school libraries. She co-authored a historical study of British popular culture with Lowenthal, and then moved increasingly toward studies of health, mental illness, and aging. She joined the Department of Psychiatry at the University of California’s San Francisco campus in 1958, where she introduced narrative interviewing methods to multidisciplinary studies that would allow subjects to “speak for themselves.” Her studies of middle age and adulthood were well-received and influential, and she was a productive researcher and an important role model for doctoral students in social psychology. Fiske won awards from the Gerontological Society of America and the American Psychological Association, and was granted an honorary doctorate by Mount Holyoke College.
Lazarsfeld, Paul, and Marjorie Fiske. 1938. The “panel” as a new tool for measuring opinion. Public Opinion Quarterly
Fiske, Marjorie. 1939. The relative preference of low-income groups for small stations. Journal of Applied Psychology
23 (1): 158-162.
Meyrowitz, Alvin and Marjorie Fiske. 1939. The relative preference of low income groups for small stations. Journal of Applied Psychology
23(1): 158-62. (Princeton Radio Research Project)
Fiske, Marjorie. 1944. How consumers react to radio advertising by retailers. Sales Management
April 15: 35.
Fiske, Marjorie. 1944. Program Analyzer. Film News
Lazarsfeld, Paul, and Marjorie Fiske. 1945. The Columbia Office of Radio Research. In How to Conduct Consumer and Opinion Research
, Albert Blankenship, ed., 137-150. New York: Harper and Brothers. Reprinted in Hollywood Quarterly
1:1 (1945): 51-59.
Lazarsfeld, Paul and Marjorie Fiske. 1945. The Office of Radio Research: A division of the Bureau of Applied Social Research, Columbia University. Educational and Psychological Measurement
Fiske, Marjorie, and Leo Handel. 1946. Motion picture research: content and audience analysis. Journal of Marketing
Merton, Robert K. with Marjorie Fiske, and Alberta Curtis. 1946. Mass Persuasion: The Social Psychology of a War Bond Drive
. New York: Harper & Bros. Reprint with a new Introduction, 2004. New York: Howard Fertig Publisher.
Fiske, Marjorie, and Leo Handel. 1947. Motion picture research: response analysis. Journal of Marketing
Fiske, Marjorie, and Leo Handel. 1947. New techniques for studying the effectiveness of films. Journal of Marketing
Wolfe, Katherine, and Marjorie Fiske. 1949. The children talk about comics. In Paul F. Lazarsfeld and Frank Stanton, eds., Communication Research
, 1948-49 (New York: Harper and Brothers): 3-50.
Fiske, Marjorie and Leo Lowenthal. 1952. Some Problems in the Administration of International Communications Research. Public Opinion Quarterly
Merton, Robert K., Marjorie Fiske, and Patricia L. Kendall. 1952. The Focused Interview: A Manual of Problems and Procedures. Columbia University: Bureau of Applied Social Research (202 pp. 3 dollars). Revised and reprinted as The Focussed Interview.
1956. Glencoe, IL: Free Press. Reprinted with a new Preface by Merton,
Lowenthal, Leo, and Majorie Fiske. 1957. The debate over art and popular culture in eighteenth-century England. In Mirra Kamorovksy, ed., Common Frontiers in the Social Sciences
(Glencoe, IL: Free Press), 33-112.
Lowenthal, Marjorie Fiske. and Leon Stein. 1964. Lives in Distress: The Paths of the Elderly to the Psychiatric Ward
. New York: Basic Books. Reprint 1980. New York: Arno Press.
Lowenthal, Marjorie Fiske. 1964. Social isolation and mental illness in old age. American Sociological Review
Lowenthal, Marjorie Fiske and Paul L. Berkman. 1964. The problem of rating psychiatric disability in a study of normal and abnormal aging. Journal of Health and Human Behavior
Lowenthal, Majorie Fiske and Clayton Haven. 1968. Interaction and adaptation: Intimacy as a critical variable. American Sociological Review
Lowenthal, Marjorie Fiske. 1971. Intentionality: Toward a framework for the study of adaptation in adulthood. Aging and Human Development
Lowenthal, Marjorie Fiske. 1980. Changing hierarchies of commitment in adulthood. In Themes of Work and Love in Adulthood
, eds. Neil J. Smelser and Erik H Erikson, 238-264. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Lowenthal, Marjorie Fiske and David A. Chiriboga. 1990. Change and Continuity in Adult Life
. San Francicso: Josey Bass.
Christine W. Kiefer, “Marjorie E. Fiske, Psychiatry, San Francisco.” University of California’s Calisphere
Marjorie Fiske Papers (1937-1949), Library Archives and Special Collections, University of California, San Francisco.
conducted several studies on Bloomingdale's.
Fleiss, Marjorie. 1940. The panel as an aid in measuring effects of advertising. Journal of Applied Psychology
HAZEL GAUDET (ERSKINE)
(1908-1975) was a fascinating and important character who turned survey and applied research toward politics as much as anyone associated with the Bureau in the early 1940s. Along with Herta Herzog, she was part of the Princeton Radio Project before it became the Office of Radio Research or moved to Columbia. She was co-author of the first two major studies the institutes published, The Invasion from Mars
(1940) and The People’s Choice
(1944). She administered and did some of the analysis for both field studies—of the radio panic caused by the 1938 War of the Worlds broadcast, and the 1940 presidential election as it played out in Erie County, Ohio. She conducted a number of other radio studies between 1939 and 1941 before going to work with the survey researcher Elmo Wilson, first at the Office of War Information and then at CBS radio. She helped with C. Wright Mills’ study of labor leaders, which became New Men of Power
(1948). She also had an affair with Mills during the mid-1940s, and he credited her (eight years his senior) with helping his important White Collar
(1951) become the book that is was (Mills, 1951).
Gaudet married and moved to Reno, Nevada in 1947, leaving academic life and turning her public energies toward politics and liberal social issues in her conservative new state. For nearly three decades, she was extremely active and influential in Nevada politics. She worked actively for Adlai Stevenson, played a catalyzing role in electing a progressive governor to the state, and “labored diligently and selflessly to protect the gains of labor and the rights of minorities, consumers, and women, as well as to defend the Bill of Rights against erosion and attack,” as a friend would remember (“In Memorium,” 573). Through the 1950s and ‘60s, she applied social research skills, well-spoken persuasiveness, and interpersonal warmth to politics and social causes. In 1966, she organized Nevada’s first chapter of the American Civil Liberties Union, holding meetings in in her living room until the group established firmer footing.
By that time, she had returned to academic publishing as well, bringing more than two decades of experience in survey research to reviving "The Polls," a regular column in the Public Opinion Quarterly
. Four times a year from 1961 until her death in 1975, Erskine selected a timely topic and presented survey data and analysis of public opinion trends about it over the last several decades. In an era before personal computers and the Internet, this meant acquiring and filing thousands of surveys from Gallup and other public opinion organizations, and sifting through for questions relevant to the issue’s topic. Erskine shied not from controversy, and" The Polls" reads as a chart of issues that divided the country in the era: civil rights, religion, demonstrations and riots, women’s roles, free speech, and social welfare programs, among many others. Meanwhile, she became a statewide leader on civil liberties issues, aided inmates suing for prison reform, and provided major national figures with data and advice on capital punishment and gun control. She was elected to the ACLU’s national board in 1970, and remained part of it until she was struck ill in 1975. When she died later that year, the ACLU remembered her in a resolution, and Public Opinion Quarterly
invited four different memorial tributes from people who knew her from the academic, political, and social welfare worlds to which she mightily contributed.
Cantril, Hadley and Hazel Gaudet. 1939. Familiarity as a factor in determining the selection and enjoyment of radio programs. Journal of Applied Psychology
Gaudet, Hazel. 1939. The favorite radio program. Journal of Applied Psychology
Cantril, Hadley, Hazel Gaudet, and Herta Herzog. 1940. The Invasion from Mars
. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Paperback, New York: Harper & Row, 1966.
Gaudet, Hazel. 1940. High school students judge radio programs. Education
Gaudet, Hazel, and Elmo C. Wilson. 1940. Who escapes the personal investigator? Journal of Applied Psychology
Gaudet, Hazel and Cuthbert Daniel. 1941. Radio listener panels report.
Washington D.C.: Federal Radio Education Committee.
Lazarsfeld, Paul F. and Hazel Gaudet. 1941. Who gets a job? Sociometry
Lazarsfeld, Paul F., B. Berelson, and Hazel Gaudet. 1944. The People's Choice: How the Voter makes up his mind in a presidential campaign
. New York: Duell and Sloan. 2nd ed., Columbia University Press, 1948.
Erskine, Hazel Gaudet. A Revival: Reports from the Polls. Public Opinion Quarterly
Erskine, Hazel Gaudet. 1961-1975. The Polls. A regular feature in each issue of Public Opinion Quarterly.
“In Memorium: Hazel Erskine, 1908-1975.” Public Opinion Quarterly
39:4 (1975-76): 571-79. Memorials by Eleanor Singer, Herbert Hyman, George Rudiak, Ralph L. Denton, Elmer R. Rusco, Richard L. Siegel, and John M. Aberasturi.
Letters from C. Wright Mills to Hazel Gaudet Erskine, 23 Oct 1948, n.d. [Nov 1948?], Sept 1951, 11 April 1961; rpt. in Kathyrn Mills and Pamela Mills, eds., C. Wright Mills: Letters and Autobiographical Writings
(Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000), 106-7n, 123-24, 126-28, 156-57, 329-30.
JOAN DORIS GOLDHAMER
See Women on the Film
ROSE KOHN GOLDSEN
Office of Radio Research, Columbia University Bureau of Applied Social Research--secretary then survey researcher
Mills, C.W., C. Senior, and Rose K. Goldsen. 1950. The Puerto Rican Journey: New York's Newest Migrants
. New York: Harper.
Morsell, John A. and Rose K. Goldsen. 1950. Who knows what about VD? Journal of Social Hygiene
Gottlieb, Lillian. 1947. Radio and newspaper reports of the Heirens murder case. Journalism Quarterly
worked with Manuel Manfield and Marjorie Fiske, conducted various studies including a greeting card study, studies analyzing Golden Wedding whiskey's trademark, a readers' gratification study for American Magazine, and several other studies of both radio and television. She often used focused interviewing in her research studies.
Hertz, Hilda and Sue Warren Little. 1944. Unmarried negro mothers in a southern urban community. Social Forces 23:73.
Hart, Hornell, and Hilda Hertz. 1944. Expectation of life as an index of social progress. American Sociological Review 9(6): 609-621.
Hertz, Hilda. 1950. Language and the social situation: a study in race relations. Raleigh, NC: Duke University.
Hertz, Hilda, and Kingsley Davis. 1952. The world distribution of urbanization. Bulletin of the International Statistical Institute 33(4): 227-242.
HERTA HERZOG MASSING
(1910- ) was arguably the most important communications researcher among the women who worked at Paul Lazarsfeld’s institutes. She was one of the most talented qualitative media researchers of her era, and played an important role in introducing methodologies and developing concepts drawn from academic research and incorporating them into marketing and advertising. She was a pioneering student of the social psychology of radio who played a major role in the development of the paradigm later known as the “uses and gratifications,” which investigates how audiences psychologically and socially engage with mass media. She also played a major role in the development of the in-depth method known as ‘the focused interview’ (later ‘the focus group’), and arguably deserves credit for inventing it.
Born and raised in Vienna, Herzog grew up during World War I and its immediate aftermath, when food shortages and sickness swept Austria and much of the rest of Europe. Her father was a lawyer who worked in the government, and Herzog enjoyed a classic humanistic gymnasium education that included Latin, Greek, and German literature. Her mother contracted tuberculosis at the end of the war, and died when Herzog was a teenager. (Herta would later contract polio, which paralyzed her for six months, and left one arm lame.) Herzog entered the University of Vienna in 1928 and took classes in languages, law, and philosophy before enrolling in the psychologist Karl Bühler’s packed lecture class. Taken by the subject, she would earn her Ph.D in psychology in 1933, writing a dissertation advised by Paul Lazarsfeld, a young statistician and social-psychologist who worked at Karl and Charlotte Bühler’s Psychological Institute. Herzog’s dissertation, based on the first mass experiment in Austria, was a study of listeners’ perceptions of human voices broadcast over radio. It was based on 2700 questionnaires distributed at tobacco shops in Vienna, and included survey and open-ended questions. Her interviewing extended Psychological Institute work. Karl Bühler (who also wrote an important theoretical treatise on language and communication) argued that knowledge in psychology could be gained through introspection, interpretation of cultural products, or observation of behavior. Lazarsfeld had developed the introspective route by means of interviewing. As Herzog later remembered, “It was his concept that one could interview ordinary people and by use of proper questioning techniques learn about their attitudes and motivations in their handling of everyday matters” (Herzog to Perse, 12 September 1994). She would develop this concept further in her own work.
After taking her Ph.D, Herzog worked as an assistant at the Psychological Institute and taught Lazarsfeld’s doctoral students when he went to Paris and then America on research fellowships. (As a Jew, his professional prospects in Austria were slim.) She joined him the US in 1935 and married him, finding work as an assistant with Lazarsfeld’s patron Robert Lynd, the Middletown sociologist who was then interviewing upscale New Jersey suburbanites about the Depression. Herzog improved her English, and became a central player in the radio research institutes that Lazarsfeld helped lead from 1937 on, associated with Princeton, the University of Newark, and finally Columbia. She specialized in small-scale qualitative, interview-based pilot studies, but also did other kinds of “applied research” conducted for commercial, governmental, and other funding agencies. She had an important hand in the study of the social panic prompted by Orson Welles’ War of the Worlds broadcast, while her extended interviews with female soap opera fans provided the basis for her classic, frequently reprinted “On Borrowed Experience” (1941—an essay she would later criticize). She published articles on radio quiz shows, mass political mail, and audience gratifications. In the early years of World War II, she ran focused group interviews in a series of contexts—to test an Office of War Information propaganda pamphlet, “The Negro and the War;” a movie in the Why We Fight series directed by Frank Capra; and foreign language Voice of America broadcasts for European-born listeners (Russians and Hungarians among others). Among her unpublished studies were interviews with multi-ethnic voters during th 1941 New York mayoral race, an analysis of news commentator John B. Hughes, an audience pretest of a novelette, and marketing studies of products like Kolynos Tooth Powder and Bisodol antacid.
Herzog left the Office of Radio Research in 1943 to work for McCann Erickson, one of the largest advertising agencies in the country. Marion Harper, then head of copy research at McCann, hired Herzog to do qualitative radio studies, and her fellow Austrian émigré Hans Zeisel to handle the quantitative side. Herzog eventually became Director of Research for McCann’s Home Office, where she worked for more than two decades. About the time they hired her, McCann bought exclusive commercial rights to the Lazarsfeld-Stanton Program Analyzer, which Herzog incorporated along with other innovative methods for marketing research—including a pupil dilation recorder to gauge the visual impact of ads, and easily-administered personality tests. She also helped introduce a now-ubiquitous concept to the world of marketing—“image,” which she understood to be an extension of Karl Bühler’s phenomenological notion of a “psychological environment.” In 1954, Herzog married German-born Rutgers sociologist Paul Massing, a former Communist Party member imprisoned by the Nazis, and a member of the resistance during the war. (Massing had briefly worked with the exiled Institute for Social Research—‘the Frankfurt School’—in residence at Columbia in 1942). In 1964, she took a position with a high-end McCann spinoff, the creative think tank Jack Tinker Partners. She remained there until 1970, when she quit to care for her husband, who had developed Parkinson’s disease. The Massings moved to Germany in 1976, and Paul died in 1979. After his death, Herta Herzog Massing re-entered the academic world with a series of lectures on U.S. television and television research at the University of Tübingen in Germany and the University of Vienna. In her mid-70s, she undertook studies of German viewers of the wildly popular American dramas, Dallas and Dynasty (called Denver Clan in Germany), which put her near the cutting edge of international audience studies at the time. In 1986 she was selected as a Hall of Fame Honoree of the Market Research Council. She continued doing research and delivering papers in her mid-eighties, turning her attention toward the anti-foreigner movement in Austria and then toward communicative aspects of anti-Semitism. In the last decades of her life, she has been living in Leutasch, a small town near Innsbruck in the Austrian Alps.
Cantril, Hadley, Hazel Gaudet, and Herta Herzog. 1940. The Invasion from Mars
. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Paperback, New York: Harper & Row, 1966.
Herzog, Herta. 1940. Professor Quiz: A gratification study. In Radio and the Printed Page
, ed. Paul Lazarsfeld, 64-93. New York: Duell, Sloan & Pearce. (see also 61-64 for an introduction to gratification studies, the first of its kind, and perhaps written by Herzog as well)
Herzog, Herta. 1941. On borrowed experience: An analysis of listening to daytime sketches. Studies in Philosophy and Social Science
Herzog, Herta. 1941. Survey of Research on Children's Radio Listening. Studies in the Social Psychology of Radio, No. 2
. New York: Bureau of Applied Social Research.
Wyant, Rowena and Herzog, Herta. 1941. Voting via the Senate mailbag. Public Opinion Quarterly
5(3): 359-382 and 4(winter): 590-624.
Herzog, Herta. 1944. What do we really know about daytime serial listeners? In Radio Research 1942-43
, eds. P.F. Lazarsfeld and F.N. Stanton, 3-33. New York: Duell, Solan & Pearce.
Herzog, Herta. 1946. Radio—The first post-war year. Public Opinion Quarterly
Herzog, Herta. 1947. Psychological gratifications in daytime radio listening. In Readings in Social Psychology
. New York: Henry Holt and CO.
Herzog, Herta. 1952. Listener mail to the Voice of America. Public Opinion Quarterly
Massing, Herta Herzog. 1986. Decoding “Dallas.” Society
Massing, Herta Herzog. 1994. On communicative aspects of antisemitism. (A pilot study in Austria). Acta, SISCA. Jerusalem: Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Perse, Elisabeth M. 1996. “Herta Herzog.” In Nancy Signorielli, ed., Women in Communication: A Biographical Sourcebook
. (Westport, CT: Greenwood), 202-211.
Letters from Herta Herzog to Elisabeth M. Perse, 12 September and 29 September 1994, and 4 April 1995. (generously made available to this website by Professor Perse)
Merton, Robert K., Alisa Gray, Barbara Hockey, and Hanan C Selvin, eds. 1952. Reader in Bureaucracy
. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
Kaplan, Barbara Hockey, ed. 1978. Social Change in the Capitalist World Economy
. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
Princeton Radio Research Project
Holter, Frances. 1939. Radio among the unemployed. Journal of Applied Psychology
1948 study with Clarence Senior on the Puerto Ricans of NYC (migrants) which became The Puerto Rican Journey: New York's Newest Migrants
by CW Mills, C Senior and RK Goldsen in 1950, published by Harper.
Isales, C. and F.G. Wale. 1953. The field program. The Journal of Social Issues
Wale, F. and Isales C. 1964. The meaning of community development. Community Dei: Bull
. 15: 90.
American Association for Public Opinion Research
conducted or assisted in a number of studies looking at everything from business executive reading habits to the correlation between handwriting and grades in school as well as advertising effectiveness.
This biography will be expanded in the near future.
Kass, Babette. 1949. Overlapping magazine reading: A new method of determining the cultural levels of magazines. In Communications Research, 1948-1949
, 130-151. eds. Paul F. Lazarsfeld and Frank N Stanton. New York: Harper & Row. (based on 1945 Masters thesis, A New Method to Study the Cultural Levels of Magazines)
Kass, Babette. 1950. What Does Your Congregation Think? A Handbook of Survey Procedures
. New York: United Synagogue of America.
Kass, Babette, and Rose Feld. 1954. The Economic Strength of Business and Professional Women
. New York: The National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Club, Inc.
Kass, Babette. 1958. Content analysis in advertising research: Some new applications of the technique. Public Opinion Quarterly
HELEN J. KAUFMAN
Clairol--Executive Director of Corporate Research: American Association of Public Opinion Research—President, 1980-81; Evaluation staff of the VOA—project director
Kaufman, Helen J. 1944. The appeal of specific daytime serials. In Radio Research 1942-1943
, eds. Paul F. Lazarsfeld and Frank N. Stanton, 86-107. Duell, Sloan and Pearce: New York.
Kaufman, Helen J. 1952. Implications of domestic research for international communications research. Public Opinion Quarterly Winter
Kaufman, Helen J. 1981. Some issues of research quality. Public Opinion Quarterly
This biography will be expanded in the near future.
(1922-1990) was a talented sociologist of communication and medicine who spent more than two decades as a research associate at the Bureau of Applied Social Research, before going on to a career focusing on medical sociology. She was born in Pueblo, Colorado, graduated from Smith College in 1942, and enrolled in graduate studies in sociology at Columbia. In her first years at the Bureau, she co-authored articles with Robert K. Merton on the focused interview, a book with Lazarsfeld on radio listening habits in the U.S., and an important study of “deviant cases” in communications research with Katherine Wolf. She went on to earn her doctorate in 1954, published her first book, married Lazarsfeld, and collaborated with Merton on a large and influential study of medical education. In 1965 Kendall finally left Columbia to join the sociology faculty at Queens College, where she served as chair in 1970-71. In the 1960s and ‘70s, she published a number of articles on science and medicine, in addition to editing a volume of Lazarsfeld’s papers.
This biography will be expanded in the near future.
Merton, Robert K., and Patricia Kendall 1944. The boomerange response: The audience acts as co-author—whether you like it or not
. Channels, National Publicity Council 21(7): 1-7.
Lazarsfeld, Paul and Patricia Kendall. 1945. The listener talks back. In Radio in Health Education
, 48-65. New York Academy of Medicine: Columbia University Press.
Merton, Robert K., and Patricia Kendall. 1946. The focused interview. American Journal of Sociology
Lazarsfeld, Paul, and Patricial Kendall. 1948. Radio Listening in America: The People Look at Radio—Again
. New York: Prentice-Hall. Reprinted. New York: Arno Press, 1979.
Kendall, Patricia, and Katherine Wolf. 1949. The analysis of deviant cases in communications research. Communications Research, 1948-49
Kendall, Patricia. 1954. Conflict and Mood: Factors Affecting the Stability of Response
. Grencoe: IL: Free Press.
Merton, Robert K., Marjorie Fiske, and Patricia L. Kendall. 1956. The Focussed Interview: A Manual of Problems and Procedures
. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
Kendall, Patricia. 1956. The ambivalent character of nationalism among Egyptian professionals. Public Opinion Quarterly
Merton, Robert K., George G. Reader, and Patricia Kendall. 1957. The Student Physician: Introductory Studies in the Sociology of Medical Education
. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Kendall, Patricia, and Robert K. Merton. 1958. Medical education as social process. In Patients, Physicians, and Illness: Sourcebook in Behavioral Science and Medicine
, E Gartley Jaco, ed., 321-350. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
Kendall, Patricia. 1960. Clinical teachers' views of the basic science curriculum. Journal of Medical Education
Kendall, Patricia. 1961. Impact of training programs on the young physician's attitudes and experiences. Journal of the American Medical Association
Kendall, Patricia. 1961. The learning environments of hospitals. Journal of the American Medical Association
Kendall, Patricia. 1963 Medical sociology in the United States. Social Science Information
Kendall, Patricia. 1964. Evaluating an experimental program in medical education. In Innovation in Education
, Matthew B Miles, ed. 343-360. New York: Teachers College Bureau of Publications.
Kendall, Patricia. 1965. The Relationship Between Medical Educators and Medical Practitioners
. Evanston, IL: Association of American Medical Colleges.
Kendall, Patricia. 1967. Student evaluation of the Cornell comprehensive care and teaching program. Comprehensive Medical Care and Teaching: A Report on the New York Hospial—Cornell Medical Center Program
Kendall, Patricia, and James A Jones. 1967. General patient care: Learning aspects” Comprehensive Medical Care and Teaching: A Report on the New York Hospital—Cornell Medical Center Program
Kendall, Patricia. 1971. Consequence of the trend toward specialization. In Psychosocial Aspect of Medical Training
, Coombs and Vincent, eds., 498-523. Springfield, IL: Chalres C. Thomas.
Kendall, Patricia. 1971. Medical specialization: Trends and contributing factors. In Psychosocial Aspect of Medical Training
, Coombs and Vincent, eds., 449-497. Springfield, IL: Chalres C. Thomas.
Kendall, Patricia. 1982. The Varied Sociology of Paul F Lazarsfeld
. Chicago: Columbia University Press.
THELMA HERMAN MCCORMACK
--See Women of the Film
firemen's attitudes and morale toward pension system; report on public's awareness about existing health facilities
1942 study of Lucky Strike Hit Parade comparing of Hit Parade ratings and describing how eight songs moved in the ratings.
Meyers, Trienah. 1955. Predicting market acceptance. Journal of Farm Economics
Meyers, Trienah. 1970. The extra cost of being poor. Journal of Home Economics
RUTH C. PETERSON
lead author for two of the Payne Fund Studies of movies and children.
Peterson, Ruth C. and Louis L. Thurston. 1932. The Effect of Motion Pictures on the Social Attitudes of High School Children
. Ann Arbor, MI: Edwards Brother.
Peterson, Ruth C. and Louis L. Thurston. 1933. Motion Pictures and the Social Attitudes of Children: A Payne Fund Study
. New York: Macmillan & Company.
ALICE KITT ROSSI
(1922 - ) was born in Brooklyn, New York to William A. and Emma Winkler Schaerr. She grew up among not only her parents, but also her grandfather, several aunts and an uncle, each who spoiled her in their own way. In particular, her aunt cultivated a love for reading in her niece. From an early age Rossi took an interest in human behavior and communication. Rossi closely watched how the different relationships in her childhood home played out and also made observations of the various group boundaries that existed in her neighborhood. Rossi was an active high school student, working on the school newspaper and serving on student government. After high school, she chose Brooklyn College to continue her studies. She started out as a literature major but switched to sociology after taking a class with Louis Schneider. At the age of 19, Rossi married her former economics teacher, a man 12 years her senior. When World War II broke out, Rossi withdrew from her studies to join the war efforts. During the war she worked with the War Manpower Commission and as an air force base special order clerk. After the war ended, she returned to Brooklyn College and finally graduated in 1947. Rossi then moved on to Columbia University. As a graduate student in the sociology department, she learned from and worked with important figures in the field such as Robert K. Merton, Paul Lazarsfeld, Kingsley Davis, and C Wright Mills. She worked as both a teaching and research assistant to Robert K. Merton. Together they published a significant sociological study on reference groups and military organization. The article, “Contributions to the Theory of Reference Group Behavior,” reinterpreted previous findings on American soldiers but was the first sociological study on reference groups and became a highly cited article in the field. As part of a research workshop as a student, she also worked as a contributing analyst for Voting: A Study of Opinion Formation in a Presidential Campaign
, another important key text in sociological studies. Both Merton and Lazarsfeld set high standards for their research and quality of their work, something Rossi says influenced her for the rest of her career.
While pursuing her graduate studies, Rossi also tried to salvage her marriage, but the two later split (when Rossi was 28). Later on, Rossi met Peter H. Rossi, who would become her second husband. The two married in 1951 and had three children together. Despite their differences in intellectual interests, they complemented each other well and occasionally worked together throughout their careers.
Rossi finally graduated with her Ph.D. in 1957 (at the age of 35) and began her teaching career in 1959 at the University of Chicago as a lecturer. She would remain there until 1967. Rossi also served as research associate for the anthropology and sociology departments as well as the university's National Opinion Research Center and the Committee on Human Development. It was during this time that Rossi got her first strong taste of sexual discrimination when she was fired by an anthropologist because he saw promise in a study she had designed and fielded and was, at the time, analyzing. Days after receiving the news that the National Science Foundation had awarded the study a grant, the anthropologist (listed as the principal investigator) dismissed Rossi, who was only listed as a research associate. That experience fueled her 1964 article,”Equality Between the Sexes: An Immodest Proposal,” and marked a turning point in her career and personal life. After that incident, Rossi helped found the National Organization for Women (NOW) in the 1960s and later, in the 1970s, the Sociologists for Women in Society (SWS).
The Rossi family moved to Baltimore in 1967, and Rossi took a position as research associate at John Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. In 1969, she accepted an associate professor position at Goucher College in Baltimore in 1969. At Goucher, she was kept busy, teaching seven classes a year and chairing the department, all the while keeping up her publication load—including two books—and her political and professional commitments. Due to anti-nepotism rules she was denied a position at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, where her husband was teaching. Finally, in 1974, she was offered a full professorship at UMass, where she remained until she retired in 1991.
Although her early work considered voting behaviors and intergroup relations, the majority of Rossi's intellectual career focused on issues of gender, family structure, and women's equality. She herself had first-hand experiences of gender discrimination that influenced her interests and Rossi frequently used reflections from her own life experiences as a wife, mother, and female scholar to inform her work. She published prolifically and covered a variety of topics, from the representation of women in certain fields to the influence of gender on parenthood. One research assistant recalls being sent to the library to collect a stack of 20 or so books that Rossi would take home and then bring back the next day to be returned—along with a new list of needed books and articles for the research assistant to track down. Rossi received six honorary degrees over her career and served as president of both the American Sociological Association and the Eastern Sociological Society. She received the Commonwealth Award for Distinguished Scholarship in Sociology in 1989 and was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. In addition to her scholarly work, she was also known to be an excellent and avid gardner, seamstress and gourmet cook—skills Rossi herself claims served as a lifetime bond between her and her mother.
Kitt, A. S., and Gleicher, D. B. (1950). Determinants of voting behavior: A progress report on the Elmira election study. Public Opinion Quarterly
Merton, R. K., and Rossi, A. (1950). Contributions to the theory of reference group behavior. In R. K. Merton and P. F. Lazarsfeld (Eds.), Continuities in Social Research
. New York: The Free Press.
Merton, R. K., and Rossi, A. (1953). Reference group theory and social mobility. Class, Status, and Power
. New York: Free Press.
Rossi, A. S. (1964). Equality between the sexes: An immodest proposal. Daedalus
, 93, 607-652.
Rossi, A. S. (1965). Women in science: Why so few? Social and psychological influences that restrict women's choice and pursuit of careers in science. Science
, 148, 1196-1202.
Rossi, A. S. (1968). Transition to parenthood. Journal of Marriage and the Family
, 30, 26-39.
Rossi, A. S. (1970). Essays on sex equality: John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor Mill
. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Rossi, A. S. (1970). Status of women in graduate departments of sociology, 1968-1969. The American Sociologist
Rossi, A. S. (1973). The feminist papers: From Adams to de Beauvoir
. Lebanon, NH: University Press of New England.
Rossi, A. S. (1984). Gender and parenthood. American Sociological Review
, 49, 1-19.
Rossi, A. S. (1986). Sex and gender in an aging society. Daedalus
, 115, 141-169.
Rossi, A. S., and Sitaraman, B. (1988). Abortion in context: Historical trends and future changes. Family Planning Perspectives
, 20, 273-281+301.
Rossi, A. S. and Rossi, P. H. (1990). Of human bonding: Parent-child relations across the life course
. New York: Walter de Gruyter, Inc.
Rossi, A. S., Ed. (2001). Caring and doing for others: Social responsibility in the domains of family, work, and the community
. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Berelson, B., Lazarsfeld, P. F., and McPhee, W. N. (1954). Voting: A Study of Opinion Formation in a Presidential Campaign
. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Alice S. Rossi biography
. World of Sociology
Rossi, A. S. (1990). Seasons of a woman's life. In Bennett M. Berger (Ed.), Authors of Their Own Lives: Intellectual Autobiographies by Twenty American Sociologists
(301-322). Berkeley: University of California Press.
Rossi, A. S. (1988). Growing up and older in sociology
. In Matilda White Riley (Ed.), Sociological Lives: Social Change and the Life Course, Vol. 2. (43-64). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
PATRICIA SALTER (WEST)
war bonds and magazine research
Master's thesis: 1944. The role of economic status in magazine reading.
Lazarsfeld, Paul, and Patricia Salter. 1946. Problems and techniques of magazine research. Magazine World
(Aug. 1945-June 1946): 39 pgs.
Berelson, Bernard, and Patricia Salter. 1946. Majority and minority Americans: An analysis of magazine fiction. Public Opinion Quarterly
Merton, Robert K., Patricia Salter West, Marie Jahoda, and Hanan C. Selvin, eds. 1951. Social Policy and Social Research in Housing. Special Issue of Journal of Social Issues
Havemann, Ernest, and Patricia Salter West. 1952. They went to College: The College Graduate in America Today
. New York: Harcourt Brace.
This biography will be revised in the near future.
JEANETTE SAYRE (SMITH)
Radio Broadcasting Research Project at the Littauer Center at Harvard University
most often involved in studies related to the control of mass communication, focuses first on radio and then on television as it became more popular in the 1950s.
Sayre, Jeanette. 1939. A comparison of three indices of attitude toward radio advertising. Journal of Applied Psychology
Sayre, Jeanette. 1939. Progress in radio fan-mail analysis. Public Opinion Quarterly
Smith, Jeanette Sayre. 1941. An analysis of the radiobroadcasting activities of federal agencies
. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Smith, Jeanette Sayre. 1941. Shortwave listening in an Italian community. Public Opinion Quarterly
Smith, Jeanette Sayre. 1942. Broadcasting for marginal Americans. Public Opinion Quarterly
This biography will be expanded in the near future.
focused on understanding Greek media, especially radio listening habits, as well as Greek international attitudes toward other countries. Later studies expanded to study mas media in Turkey.
receives acknowledgment for her help in Berelson, Lazarsfeld and McPhee's Voting: A Study of Opinion Formation in a Presidential Campaign.
MRS. PAUL TRILLING
conducted interviews for the Invasion from Mars study that interviewed listeners about Orson Welles' War of the Worlds broadcast.
Wagner, Isabelle. 1939. Articulate and inarticulate replied to questionnaires. Journal of Applied Psychology: 104-114.
Kendall, Patricia, and Katherine Wolf. 1949. The analysis of deviant cases in communications research. Communications Research 1948-49
Wolf, Katherine, and Marjorie Fiske. 1949. The children talk about comics. Communication Research, 1948-49